Ability to hear and manipulate individual phonemes. Phonological awareness includes this ability, but it also includes the ability to hear and manipulate larger units of sound, such as onsets and rimes and syllables
Ability to apply the most basic level of phonics knowledge - recognition and naming of letter names and sounds
Ability to apply knowledge of letter-sound relationships, including knowledge of letter patterns, to correctly pronounce written words.
Encoding - Spelling
Ability to use the relationship between spelling and pronunciation at the letter, syllable and word level to figure out unfamiliar words.
Oral Reading Fluency
Ability to read aloud words with accuracy, proper phrasing and pacing.
Ability to read words quickly, accurately and monitor for meaning while reading.
Ability to understand the meaning of critical words in order to promote reading comprehension.
Ability to process text, understand its meaning, and to integrate with what the reader already knows.